Mastership of Ameerul Momineen(a.s.) in the light of Quranic verse about the Sadiqeen – Part II
Continued from part I
The Misinterpretation of Fakhre Raazi
Regarding this verse, Fakhre Raazi claims that in the first instance Allah has ordered the believers to acquire piety and this order includes all those people for whom there is a possibility that they are not pious. This means the ones who are addressed are those individuals for whom there is a possibility of committing sins and mistakes. The meaning that is conveyed through this verse is that such impious people should always be accompanying such people who are protected from mistakes so that they can protect the impious ones from mistakes and slips and this is referring to people of all times and not only for the era of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). (Tafseer-e-Kabir vol 16 pg 220)
While this interpretation is correct, when it comes to identifying the ‘Sadiqeen’ Fakhre Raazi makes plain his bias towards the Ahle Bait (a.s.) exposing himself to ridicule.
Fakhre Raazi deserves to be criticized
This is not the first blunder made by Fakhre Raazi, which can only be described as shocking, even immature for a person of his standing. It only reflects on his poor knowledge of traditions and tafaaseer (exegesis of the Quran). Regarding the exegesis of this noble verse Fakhre Raazi walks halfway with the view of other interpreters and accepts the need for the sadiqeen with the prerequisite that they be infallible and that by following and obeying them alone, can we protect ourselves from sins and mistakes. But according to him the word Sadiqeen refers to the whole nation. He asserts – our view is that the whole nation is infallible.
We say that the second opinion is void because Allah has made obligatory on all believers to be with the truthful people and this is only possible if the person is well aware and having knowledge about this person i.e. ‘Sadiq – he cannot be unknown to the Muslims. If a person is ordered that he should be with a particular person who is ‘Sadiq’ then it is necessary that such a person should be known and introduced to the Muslims. Else, such an order to be with the ‘Sadiq’ will be considered as ‘Responsibility Beyond Capacity’ meaning the person is being asked to obey Sadiq while he is still not been identified.He says – Since we do not know who among us is qualified with infallibility and purity and knowledge it is clear that we cannot be ordered to obey and be with any one appointed person.(Ibid vol 16 pg 240)
Reply: Firstly, we all believe that in every era there should be one infallible person. On the basis of the law of grace it is clear that Allah in every possible way makes the people recognize this infallible person just as in every era He has made people recognize the messengers and prophets. Otherwise how would the people know that they are infallible and have come as representatives of Allah. This is how He has introduced the people to Hazrat Nuh (a.s.), Hazrat Moosa (a.s.) and Hazrat Isa (a.s.) through proofs and clear signs.
Similarly Allah has also introduced the Muslims to the successor of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and the inheritor of his knowledge, whose distinctions, ethics and character are similar to that of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The Quranic proofs and traditions of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) by consensus of both sects affirm their infallibility. After studying the traditions it is clear that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) the infallible people – the ‘Sadiqeen’ are these very personalities – the first being Ameerul Momineen – Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) and the last being Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.).
Secondly, according to Fakhre Raazi the whole nation is infallible. Such an opinion is extremely weak and against intellect and baseless. The Islamic nation is not a group that has descended from the heavens or come into existence from special clay. They are the individuals of this very nation many of whom were idol-worshippers, atheists, adulterers, drunkards, gamblers, thieves, plunderers until a few years before accepting Islam. Many of them have been criticized by the Quran even after accepting Islam for various actions like fleeing the battlefield and disobeying Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.a.) on several occasions.
According to Fakhre Raazi’s view no individual attains infallibility. But he ridiculously maintains that the whole nation is infallible although it is formed by those very individuals. It is not clear whether Fakhre Raazi himself understood his ridiculous claim. Therefore his view is rejected on the basis of irrationality and contradiction with reliable traditions.
On referring reliable traditions it is clear that the word ‘Sadiqeen’ in the verse refers to the infallible and pure household of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). And it is only they who are suitable for this position.
- In the exegesis of this verse – Haakim Haskaani has narrated from Abdullah b. Umar regarding the words “fear Allah” Allah has ordered all the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to fear Allah. Then again addressing them Allah has ordered “and be among the truthful ones” meaning- be with Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his progeny (a.s.). (Shawahid al-Tanzeel under the exegesis of the verse)
- Burair b. Muawiyah Ajali says – I asked Imam Baqir (a.s.) regarding the verse “fear Allah…be among the truthful ones” Imam (a.s.) said – Allah has reserved for our obedience alone. (Usool-e-Kafi vol 1 pg 208)
- During a debate Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) demanded – For the sake of Allah tell me whether you know about this verse of Surah Taubah (9): 119 what the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed the Muslims? At that time someone asked Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) whether the verse had been revealed for common people or special people? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed: It has been referred to common people in general that they are ordered to acquire piety and be with the Sadiqeen. But the word Sadiqeen refers to Imam Ali (a.s.) and his progeny after me – they will be the successors till the Day of Judgement. (Faraed al-Simtain vol 1 pg 312, Kamaluddin pg 264, Behaar al-Anwaar vol 33 pg 149)Sibt Ibn Jauzi-e-Hanafi has recorded that the scholars of Quranic exegesis have interpreted that this verse refers to Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) and his progeny (a.s.). (Tazkerah al-Khawaas pg 16)
A close look at fabricated traditions on the verse
According to the Tafaseer of Ahle Tasannun the word ‘Sadiqeen’ refers to the first two caliphs . Ibn Asaakir has narrated from Zahhak that the order to be with the ‘Sadiqeen’ is actually intended for the first two caliphs.
(Tarikh-e-Medinah al-Dimishq vol 3 pg 310)
Reply: Two points in particular are worth mentioning in response to such false traditions:
- Among the chain of narrators we find Zubair b. Saeed-e-Azadi regarding whom Ibne Hajar has mentioned in Tehzeebal-Tehzeeb from experts on Ilme Rejaal like Ibne Moin, Abu Dawood, Ibne Adi, Nesaai, that this narrator is weak and unreliable. In another chain of narration we find IshaaqIbn Bashar-e-Kahili who is also considered unreliable by Zahabi on the authority of Ibne Abi Shaibah, Moosa b. Haroon, Abu Zarrah and Daar Qutni. (Meezanal-Etedaal vol 1 pg 186)
- Reliable traditions from both the sects clearly establish that ‘Sadiqeen’ refer to the Imams (a.s.). After the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) they are the pure chain of infallible successors.
As regards the first two caliphs , on referring to the books of history, exegesis and biographies we can only conclude that they were not infallible by any stretch of imagination and Sunni scholars are the first ones to admit this